Biogents – Science for Your Protection –

Scientific foundation and publications

Biogents’ mosquito traps were invented by scientists who have been doing research on the behaviour of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects for over 16 years. The scientific foundation of Biogents mosquito traps are more than 300 publications that document the exceptional capture rates.

Useful applications and a number of patents have resulted from sound fundamental research at the University of Regensburg. Capture devices originally built for fellow researchers and specialists have evolved into fully developed products within a short period of time.

The BG-Sentinel already became one of the leading traps for monitoring tiger mosquitoes and other species within just a few years after its invention in 2004. A steadily growing number of independent scientific publications reviewed by experts supply impressive evidence of the widespread use of Biogents traps. E.g., a study in Cesena, Italy, shows a reduction of mosquito bites up to 85 % in areas with Biogents traps, see below.

Collection of publications

PDF List of studies with Biogents traps >

PDF List of scientific publications of our researchers >

Online database with publications on studies using the BG-Sentinel >

 

Selected studies:

Johnson et al. (2018): Neighbors help neighbors control urban mosquitoes

Government-led programs to control dengue have often failed. Urban Aedes mosquitoes such as the yellow fever mosquito Ae. aegypti and the asian tiger mosquito Ae. albopictus mainly breed in small containers on private properties. They therefore seem to be great species to be targeted by control programs that strongly rely on citizen participation.

The town of University Park, MD, USA used the BG-GAT traps in a citizen-based mosquito control intervention. The town is highly infested with Ae. albopictus and comprises approximately 1000 residential yards. The approach named Citizen Action through Science (Citizen AcTS) is based on citizen volunteers that are mentored by scientific advisors. Residents were encouraged to purchase two BG-GAT traps (one for the front- and one for the back yard). Each block of houses had a community leader that informed their neighbors about the initiative. Every participant was responsable for the installation and maintenance of the purchased traps.

Almost the half of the town’s residential yards (439 of 954) were equipped with GATs. Results indicate effective mosquito control, however the reduction of mosquito nuissance was significantly higher in blocks, where more than 80% of households used GAT traps (Fig. 1).

Mean (±SE) female Ae. albopictus abundance during each collection point in high (≥80%) and low (
Fig. 1 Mean (±SE) female Ae. albopictus abundance during each collection point in high (≥80%) and low (<80%) coverage monitoring sites. Different letters or presence of ’**’ indicate statistical significance between observations (P < 0.05).

Read more about the results in the publication:

Johnson BJ, Brosch D, Christiansen A, Wells E, Wells M, Bhandoola AF, Milne A, Garrison S, Fonseca DM. 2018. Neighbors help neighbors control urban mosquitoes. Sci Rep. 8(1):15797. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-34161-9.

PDF Download the publication >>

Individual Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) coverages (percentage of yards with traps) for all blocks in University Park, MD and (B) selected high (>50%) and low (
Individual Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) coverages (percentage of yards with traps) for all blocks in University Park, MD and (B) selected high (>50%) and low (<50%) coverage adult Ae. albopictus surveillance blocks.

Akhoundi et al., 2018: Effectiveness of a field trap barrier system for controlling Aedes albopictus: a “removal trapping” strategy

A barrier system of Biogents traps with CO2 to protect houses from Tiger mosquitoes Aedes albopictus

A scientific study from southern France demonstrated the potential of Biogents traps to significantly reduce Asian tiger mosquito biting pressure to almost zero:

Three houses with garden were treated with a network Biogents traps that were operated with CO2 and BG-Lure for 3 months during the peak activity season of Ae. albopictus. The average distance between the traps was 5 m. The three treated properties received 9, 13, and 18 traps, depending on their size (Fig. 1a-c). The trap network is called “Bio-Belt Anti-Moustique” and was patented by the French company HBM Distribution SAS.

The mosquito biting pressure in outdoor areas of the three treated houses was compared to the biting pressure in three untreated houses with similar environments. An effect of the trap barrier is visible from the time, when traps were turned on (vertical dashed line in Fig. 2). After three weeks of continous trapping, the biting pressure was substantially reduced in the houses that were protected by traps, in comparison to untreated houses, and after six weeks, the biting pressure was reduced to almost zero.
Biobelt traps installation in the treated houses. a-c Spatial schematic depiction of the array of the “belt” of traps around three treated houses, prospected in the area Modules- traps are shown in green. The area protected by the barrier is hatched

Fig 1: Biobelt traps installation in the treated houses. a-c Spatial schematic depiction of the array of the “belt” of traps around three treated houses, prospected in the area Modules- traps are shown in green. The area protected by the barrier is hatched

Weekly mean Ae. albopictus biting pressure in three houses with BG-Sentinel trap barrier system and in three untreated control houses in southern France, July - Sept 2016. The dashed vertical line indicates when the trap barrier system was turned on.

Fig. 2: Weekly mean Ae. albopictus biting pressure in three houses with BG-Sentinel trap barrier system and in three untreated control houses in southern France, July – Sept 2016. The dashed vertical line indicates when the trap barrier system was turned on.

Read more about the results in the publication:

Akhoundi M, Jourdain F, Chandre F, Delaunay P, Roiz D. 2018. Effectiveness of a field trap barrier system for controlling Aedes albopictus: a “removal trapping” strategy. Parasit Vectors. 11(1):101. doi:10.1186/s13071-018-2691-1.

PDF Download the publication >>

Geographical positions of treated (red) and control (yellow) houses in the present study.
Geographical positions of treated (red) and control (yellow) houses in the present study.

Englbrecht et al., 2015: Evaluation of BG-Sentinel trap as a management tool to reduce Aedes albopictus nuisance in an urban enviroment in Italy

Since its introduction and establishment in Italy during the early 1990s, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has spread over large parts of Italy and other Mediterranean countries. Aedes albopictus is both a nuisance and a competent vector for various arthropod-borne pathogens. Although efficient traps for Ae. albopictus exist and are used for population monitoring, their use as a control tool has not yet been studied. We evaluated Biogents BG-Sentinel mosquito traps, used with the BG-Lure, as control tools in northern Italy. The trial was performed as a controlled experiment in which 3 intervention sites, equipped with 7 or 8 BG-Sentinel traps each, were matched with 3 comparable control sites. Trap density ranged from 1 trap per 150 m2 to 1 per 350 m2. Mosquito populations were monitored at both the intervention and control sites with weekly human landing collections (HLC) and ovitraps. Between 64% and 87% fewer Ae. albopictus individuals were collected by HLC at the intervention sites with the BG-Sentinel mosquito traps, as compared to the untreated control sites. These results indicate that the sustained use and proper placement of efficient mosquito traps can significantly reduce Ae. albopictus biting pressure.

Read more about the results in the publication:

Englbrecht C, Gordon S, Venturelli C, Rose A, Geier M. 2015. Evaluation of BG-Sentinel Trap as a Management Tool to Reduce Aedes albopictus Nuisance in an Urban Environment in Italy. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 31(1):16–25. doi:10.2987/14-6444.1.

PDF Download the publication >
PDF Download flyer with summary of publication (page 2 of the flyer) >

Englbrecht et al., 2015: Evaluation of BG-Sentinel trap as a management tool to reduce Aedes albopictus nuisance in an urban enviroment in Italy

Since its introduction and establishment in Italy during the early 1990s, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has spread over large parts of Italy and other Mediterranean countries. Aedes albopictus is both a nuisance and a competent vector for various arthropod-borne pathogens. Although efficient traps for Ae. albopictus exist and are used for population monitoring, their use as a control tool has not yet been studied. We evaluated Biogents BG-Sentinel mosquito traps, used with the BG-Lure, as control tools in northern Italy. The trial was performed as a controlled experiment in which 3 intervention sites, equipped with 7 or 8 BG-Sentinel traps each, were matched with 3 comparable control sites. Trap density ranged from 1 trap per 150 m2 to 1 per 350 m2. Mosquito populations were monitored at both the intervention and control sites with weekly human landing collections (HLC) and ovitraps. Between 64% and 87% fewer Ae. albopictus individuals were collected by HLC at the intervention sites with the BG-Sentinel mosquito traps, as compared to the untreated control sites. These results indicate that the sustained use and proper placement of efficient mosquito traps can significantly reduce Ae. albopictus biting pressure.

Read more about the results in the publication:
Englbrecht, C., Gordon, S., Venturelli, C., Rose, A., and Geier, M. (2015). Evaluation of BG-Sentinel Trap as a Management Tool to Reduce Aedes albopictus Nuisance in an Urban Environment in Italy. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 31, 16–25.

PDF Download the publication >
PDF Download flyer with summary of publication (page 2 of the flyer) >

Cesena in Italy, map

Degener et al, 2014: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Mass Trapping With BG-Sentinel Traps for Dengue Vector Control: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Manaus, Brazil

1400 households, 450 Biogents traps, uncounted dengue mosquitoes – a long-term study in Brazil

Regensburg 2014/03/27 – Dengue fever is widely distributed in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical regions and a constant threat to the local population.  Dengue is mosquito-borne virus that infects up to 100 million people each year.  Because there is no effective vaccine available, the only way to control the disease is by controlling the dengue mosquitoes. While the use of conventional insecticides is widespread, they have become increasingly ineffective due to insecticide resistance.

A new approach to control the mosquitoes could be the mosquito trap developed by Biogents. A large-scale study published in the Entomological Society of America’s Journal of Medical Entomology has demonstrated for the first time that these traps can also reduce the number of dengue mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) in a broad urban area. The study co-financed by the world-bank was conducted over 18 months with more than 1400 households and 450 Biogents traps in Manaus, Brazil.

The result: „The study shows that the Biogents traps can significantly reduce the amount of adult female Aedes aegypti especially in the rainy season” says Prof. Eiras from the University Federal de Minas Gerais (Brazil).  The number of dengue infections in the test areas also decreased. An additional advantage for household trap users was the Biogents traps also reduced numbers of the annoying and often numerous tropical house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus). Households that used the traps reported a noticeable reduction in the nuisance from mosquitoes. Additional studies will be required to investigate the effects of trapping on larger scales and during epidemics.

Read more about the results in the publication:
Degener CM, Eiras E, Zara TMF, Roque RA, Rösner S, Codeço CT, Nobre AA, Rocha ESO, Kroon EG, Ohly JJ, et al. 2014. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Mass Trapping With BG-Sentinel Traps for Dengue Vector Control: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Manaus, Brazil. J Med Entomol. 51(2):408–420. doi:10.1603/ME13107.

PDF PDF 2014/03/27 press release >
PDF Download publication >
PDF Download a summary of the publication (page 1 of the flyer) >

1400 households, 450 Biogents traps, uncounted dengue mosquitoes - a long-term study in Manaus, Brazil

Multiyear Surveillance for Aedes albopictus with Biogents Sentinel Trap Counts for Males and Species Composition of Other Mosquito Species

40 to 50 BGS traps were utilized during an intensive 5-year surveillance as part of an ‘Area-wide Management Program for the Asian Tiger Mosquito’ in NJ, USA. The results are now published. The authors say that the Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap is a very effective tool to monitor adult populations of Aedes albopictus and that although BGS traps are becoming the gold standard instrument for Ae. albopictus surveillance, they can also be used to collect other important mosquito species, which can enhance existing vector surveillance programs.

Read more about the results in the publication:
Unlu I, Farajollahi A. 2014. A multiyear surveillance for Aedes albopictus with Biogents Sentinel Trap counts for males and species composition of other mosquito species. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 30(2):122–125. doi:10.2987/14-6401.1.

PDF Download the publication >

Comparison of 4 traps used for mosquito monitoring and surveillance programs: The BG-Sentinel trap is probably the best solution

Four different traps, Biogents Sentinel trap (BG trap), Heavy Duty Encephalitis Vector Survey trap (EVS trap), Centres for Disease Control miniature light trap (CDC trap) and Mosquito Magnet Patriot Mosquito trap (MM trap) were compared in a 4×4 latin square study. In the years 2012 and 2013, more than seventy 24-hour trap comparisons were conducted at ten different locations in northern and southern Germany, representing urban, forest and floodplain biotopes.

Conclusion: The autors say that the BG trap showed a significantly better or similar performance compared to the CDC, EVS or MM trap with regard to trapping efficacy for most common mosquito species in Germany, including diversity of mosquito species and number of mosquitoes per trapping period. Thus, they say, the BG trap is probably the best solution for general monitoring or surveillance programs of adult mosquitoes in Central Europe.

Read more about the results in the publication:
Lühken R, Pfitzner WP, Börstler J, Garms R, Huber K, Schork N, Steinke S, Kiel E, Becker N, Tannich E, et al. 2014. Field evaluation of four widely used mosquito traps in Central Europe. Parasites and Vectors. 7(1). doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-268.

PDF Download the publication >>